Contemporary history describes the periodtimeframe that is closely connected to the present day; it is a certain perspective of modern history. The term "contemporary history" has been in use at least since the early 19th century. In the widest context of this use, contemporary history is that of current events and the part of history still in living memory. Based on current human lifespan-averages, contemporary history would extend for a period of approximately 80 years.
In a narrower sense "contemporary history" may refer to the history remembered by most (more than 50 percent) of human beings alive, extending to about a generation. As the median age of people living on Earth is 30 years as of the present (2016) this is currently often understood as meaning anything after about 1991 when the Cold War order collapsed and use of the Internet became widespread outside of academia, defense and big business; the beginning of the "long 21st century".
The present age possesses a distinct character of its own.
Contemporary was a monthly visual arts magazine based in London. Founded and edited as The Green Book by Keith Spencer as a quarterly publication, it re-emerged under the title Contemporary Art in 1993. On the death of Spencer, the title was acquired by Gordon and Breach Publishing (G+B), and produced four issues under the editorship of Lynne Green, Spencer's deputy.
The magazine finally found its feet as a committed contemporary art publication in 1996 under the editorial control of Keith Patrick and with the change of title to Contemporary Visual Arts, later abbreviated to CVA. During this period the magazine achieved sales of nearly 20,000, including 5,000 subscribers, with distribution mainly in the UK, Europe, the States and Australia. Its base at this time was the former Peek Freans biscuit factory in Bermondsey, London, the site of several key early exhibitions of the YBA generation.
With the collapse of the G+B parent company in 2001, the title was acquired by Art:21 and reappeared as Contemporary in January 2002 although no longer with an exclusive commitment to the visual arts. In 2003 a sister publication, Contemporary 21, was launched. Initially media-focused, with special issues dedicated to painting, sculpture, video art and performance, it would later embrace a wider range of topics, from art collecting to the relationship between visual art and architecture. In 2006 Contemporary published its first Annual, featuring 50 emerging artists nominated by its network of world correspondents. In 2008 the magazine relocated to Panama City, where it ceased publication after failing in an attempt to start a Spanish-language edition.
Jewellery or jewelry (/ˈdʒuːᵊlᵊri/) consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.
2001–2003: Debut, line-up changes, Again & Beloved
Jewelry founding members Park Jung-ah, Lee Ji-hyun, Jun Eun-mi and Jung Yoo-jin debuted in 2001 with their first album Discovery. After less-than-stellar sales of the first album, two of the singers (Jun Eun-mi and Jung Yoo-jin) were replaced by Seo In-young and Cho Min-ah.
A year later, their second album, Again, was released, with much better results. Full of strong R&B ballads (as opposed to the sexy dance songs that were popular at that time), the album quickly yielded two high-charting singles — "Again" and "Tonight" — which started the group's rise to popularity. This was quickly followed by their third album Beloved, which had a very cutesy theme. Their first single "니가 참 좋아" ("I Really Like You") was very poppy and had Jewelry adopt a cutesy concept to match the song, with colorful outfits and perky dances. The title track, Be My Love, was also promoted. Even though album sales for Again and Beloved were great, the group was unhappy with their current image, and did not want to be known for only their cute and innocent songs.
The Mel Bernie Company, trading as 1928 Jewelry Company (and sometimes referred to simply as "1928 Jewelry") is a manufacturer and wholesaler of costume jewelry and novelties. They also distribute their products directly to consumers through their website.
The 1928 Jewelry Company was founded by Melvyn Bernie in 1968. Today, it is one of the largest and last standing jewelry manufacturers in the U.S. The company specializes in reproductions and interpretations of antique jewelry designs. It is located in Burbank, California and has about 250 employees as of 2013. It is a privately held company.
The company has diversified and grown by extending the 1928 brand into several other labels and categories including "2028", "1928 Boutique", the "Vatican Library Collection", "Antiquities Couture", and "1928 Hair Jewelry". In 2011, 1928 Jewelry reached an agreement with Laundry by Shelli Segal (a Perry Ellis International brand) to design and market jewelry complementary to that fashion line. In 2012, 1928 Jewelry launched a line of Marvel Comics superhero themed jewelry.